Cotonou Agreement Summary

The EU will work towards an in-depth agreement, with a common basis at ACP level, in conjunction with three tailor-made regional partnerships for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. Under the new agreement, the EU can be more selective and flexible in the allocation and use of its development resources. The allocation of development assistance is based on an assessment of a country`s needs and performance and involves the possibility of regularly adjusting financial resources accordingly. In practice, this means that more money can be transferred to «good performers» and the share of «bad performers» can be reduced. Hence the Jaunde Agreements of 1963 and 1969, which served as a basis for cooperation between the newly independent African States and the EEC. The Youndé Agreements were built with the ultimate aim of the Treaty of Rome expanding trade and gave the EEC better access to SAAS resources and markets. In comparison, many SAAS countries have remained too dependent on EU markets and have continued to focus on exports of raw materials and raw materials. The Yaoundé accords were also criticized for allowing France`s political and economic dominance in French-speaking Africa, which continues to this day. Nevertheless, the agreements granted both aid and access to the EU market on a reciprocal basis. For Eastern and Southern Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and Madagascar signed an EPA in 2009. The Agreement has been provisionally applied since 14 May 2012.

In July 2014, 16 West African states, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) presented an agreement with the EU on the eve of the day before. The signing process is ongoing. (Source: European Parliament Briefing – Overview of the Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and the ACP countries by Ionel Zamfir) The agreement signed in 2000 between african, Caribbean and Pacific countries and the EU expires in 2020. It regulates political, trade, cooperation and development relations between the two blocs, whose closer relations began in 1975 with the Lomé Convention. (i) agreements at regional level have meant that EPAs will contribute to further regional integration, facilitate the entry of ACP countries into the world economy and boost trade and investment. From the EU`s perspective, the EU remains an important trading partner (and, in some cases, an important trading partner for the ACP regional economic communities (see Figure 1 below). «The achievements of the Cotonou Agreement are numerous. Everything is present in this agreement, even if not all of them have been implemented with the same success,» explains a French diplomatic source. The current CPA expires in February 2020 and negotiations for a successor agreement are expected to start in September 2018 with the aim of adapting the partnership to framework conditions such as the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. . .

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